HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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This is a topic-wise Human Anatomy & Physiology I Pharm D notes according to the Syllabus Prescribed by PCI. This notes will help in the preparation & revision of the subject during exam time. I welcome any kind of suggestion and feedback for further development of the notes.

                                                                 TOPICS

1. Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject

2. Structure of cell- its components and their functions

3. Elementary tissues of the human body: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissue- their subtypes and characteristics

4. Osseous system- structure, composition and functions of the skeleton; classification of joints, types of movements of joints and disorders of joints

5. HAEMOPOIETIC SYSTEM
a) Composition and functions of blood
b) Haempoiesis and disorders of blood components
c) Blood groups
d) Clotting factors and mechanism
e) Platelets and disorders of coagulation

6. LYMPH
a) Lymph and lymphatic system, composition, formation and circulation
b) Spleen: structure and functions, disorders
c) Disorders of lymphatic system


7. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
a) Anatomy and functions of heart
b) Blood vessels and circulation (Pulmonary, coronary and systemic circulation)
c) Electrocardiogram (ECG)
d) Cardiac cycle and heart sounds
e) Blood pressure – its maintenance and regulation
f) Definition of the following disorders:
Hypertension, Hypotension, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Angina, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, Cardiac arrhythmias


8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
a) Anatomy of respiratory organs and functions
b) Mechanism / physiology of respiration and regulation of respiration
c) Transport of respiratory gases
d) Respiratory volumes and capacities, and Definition of: Hypoxia, Asphyxia,
Dybarism, Oxygen therapy and resuscitation.


9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
a) Anatomy and physiology of GIT
b) Anatomy and functions of accessory glands of GIT
c) Digestion and absorption
d) Disorders of GIT (definitions only)


10. NERVOUS SYSTEM
a) Definition and classification of nervous system
b) Anatomy, physiology and functional areas of cerebrum
c) Anatomy and physiology of cerebellum
d) Anatomy and physiology of mid brain
e) Thalamus, hypothalamus and Basal Ganglia
f) Spinal card: Structure & reflexes – mono-poly-planter
g) Cranial nerves – names and functions
h) ANS – Anatomy & functions of sympathetic & parasympathetic N.S.


11. URINARY SYSTEM
a) Anatomy and physiology of urinary system
b) Formation of urine
c) Renin Angiotensin system – Juxtaglomerular apparatus - acid base Balance
d) Clearance tests and micturition


12. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
a) Pituitary gland
b) Adrenal gland
c) Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
d) Pancreas and gonads


13. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
a) Male and female reproductive system
b) Their hormones – Physiology of menstruation
c) Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
d) Sex determination (genetic basis)
e) Pregnancy and maintenance and parturition
f) Contraceptive devices


14. SENSE ORGANS
a) Eye
b) Ear
c) Skin
d) Tongue & Nose


15. SKELETAL MUSCLES
a) Histology
b) Physiology of Muscle contraction
c) Physiological properties of skeletal muscle and their disorders (definitions)


16. SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY
a) Muscles in exercise, Effect of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance
b) Respiration in exercise, CVS in exercise, Body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salts in exercise
c) Drugs and athletics

Note: The above notes are only for preparation & revision of subject during exams. They cannot substitue the deep knowledge present in the textbooks.

Human Anatomy and Physiology Textbooks recommended by RGUHS
  1. Tortora Gerard J. and Nicholas, P. Principles of anatomy and physiology Publisher Harpercollins college New York.

  2. Wilson, K.J.W. Ross and Wilson’s foundations of anatomy and physiology. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg.

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